Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Different SPI Models of Cloud Computing Case Study - 1

Diverse SPI Models of Cloud Computing - Case Study Example Distributed computing is really a conversational articulation that alludes to a variety of fluctuating sorts of figuring ideas that comprise an enormous number of PCs interconnected to one another by methods for a genuine, synchronous correspondence like the Internet (Carroll et al., 2012). Likewise, distributed computing is a model that is utilized to permit inescapable, worldwide, and advantageous system access to a typical assortment of configurable figuring assets, for example, systems and servers (Mell and Grance, 2011). Basically, the target of distributed computing is to expand shared assets. This has been completed by sharing administrations and assets that are made accessible on the World Wide Web. How? At the base of distributed computing is a more profound idea of consolidated foundation and shared administrations. All in all, why the idea of utilizing mists as a feature of the expression? Distributed computing permits shared administrations including servers, not genuine serves but rather virtual servers which are interconnected to one another utilizing the web. These servers don't generally exist in reality; subsequently, they can be moved around or extended while the end-client isn't being influenced at all †like a cloud. Distributed computing has diverse SPI models and every one of them has a particular use. On the whole, let us find out about what SPI implies. SPI is an abbreviation that alludes to regular distributed computing models. SPI represents the accompanying: S is for Software as a Service (SaaS); P is for Platform as a Service (PaaS), and I is for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). SaaS is explicitly expected for the end-clients, which are transmitted over the web. PaaS is an assortment of means or instruments implied for coding and setting up applications rapidly and proficiently. What's more, in conclusion, IaaS just relates to the equipment and programming that make everything work viably. These incorporate servers, systems, working frameworks, and so forth. (Mell and Grance, 2011). SaaS is regularly end-client applications that are being conveyed by methods for the internet. There is no requirement for establishment up to a program and an association with the web are set.â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Nurses Role in Prevention of Central Venous Line Infection Essay

The Nurses Role in Prevention of Central Venous Line Infection - Essay Example The issues recognized for this exploration are that CVLI presents a genuine wellbeing danger to patients, medical caretakers are much of the time in a situation to add to the issue, and that preparation and anticipation procedures ought to be utilized to lessen the recurrence and seriousness of CVLI. Noteworthiness of the Problem. The noteworthiness of CVLI can't be exaggerated. It expands the dreariness and death paces of patients who endure disease because of bacterial presentation and development in what is regularly an immunosuppressed domain. This issue is critical to nursing for two essential reasons; medical caretakers are in a situation to add to the recurrence and seriousness of the issue, and they are additionally the main line of protection in avoidance, identification, and goals of CVLI. Research Hypothesis. The desires for this exploration are that it will plainly illustrate; that most instances of CVLI are preventable, the occurrence of medical attendant commitment to the condition is high, a program of preparing and protection systems would lessen the recurrence of contamination, and that more research is expected to decide the conventions for a program of avoidance. Writing Review. There are a few examinations regarding the matter of CVLI and the contributory issues included. While this group of writing is enlightening, it doesn't block the requirement for the examination proposed in this. From Hadaway, we know t... The desires for this exploration are that it will obviously illustrate; that most instances of CVLI are preventable, the rate of medical caretaker commitment to the condition is high, a program of preparing and deterrent procedures would decrease the recurrence of disease, and that more research is expected to decide the conventions for a program of anticipation. Section TWO Writing Review. There are a few investigations regarding the matter of CVLI and the contributory issues included. While this assemblage of writing is educational, it doesn't block the requirement for the examination proposed in this. From Hadaway, we realize that focal venous lines are significantly more liable to build the recurrence, just as the earnestness, of contaminations than are short fringe catheters. She brings up that two factors that add to this reality are that the patients themselves will in general be increasingly defenseless, and the presentation to microorganisms is expanded because of the more regular access required in keeping up focal venous lines (Hadaway, 2006, p. 58) These contaminations, especially those at the site of the intravascular gadget, are a significant wellspring of dismalness, happen every now and again, and can increment both the length of a patient's stay at the emergency clinic just as the expenses related with that time of strengthening (Musher, el al., 2002, p. 769). The examination of Dr. Oudiz and his co-creators has discovered that early discovery of contamination in such patients is urgent, however it very well may be troublesome given the way that the manifestations fr equently present in a summed up way and don't at first show up as an intense disease (Oudiz, et al., 2004, p. 92). At the point when those side effects do introduce, notwithstanding, it is regularly important to expel the focal venous line so as to kill the contamination (Brooks and

Salem Witch Trials and Thesis Statement free essay sample

Talk about how explicit characters assume a job in this contention just as how it ontributes to the importance of the play. 3. A portion of the characters in the play are incognizant in regards to reality. Pick three characters and talk about why they are incognizant in regards to truth just as how their visual deficiency influences the result of the play. 4. The word cauldron can be characterized as a serious difficulty or a situation where individuals are exposed to powers that test them and regularly make them change. What is the importance of the title of the play? Which characters best delineate the titles meaning? . Play out an examination of John Proctors character. What does he speak to in the play? What is Johns significant clash? How can he defeat it? What does his character uncover about the plays further implications? Necessities - Your paper must be in any event five sections long. - It must follow the rules illustrated in this task. - It must be composed, twofold dispersed, with one inch edges, in size 12, Times New Roman textual style. - Your last draft must be submitted on Wednesday, November 17. Late papers will lose 10 focuses every day, including end of the week days. No papers will be acknowledged after November 24. Significant Due Dates Thesis Statement: Thursday, November 4 Introduction: Friday, November 5 Gathering Support Assignment: Monday, November 8 Rough Draft: Monday, November 15 Final Draft: Wednesday, November 17 Guidelines A scientific article gives your point of view on a bit of writing. Think about your paper as the satisfaction of the accompanying objectives: 1. You need to impart what you have found out about Arthur Millers play, The Crucible. 2. You ought to make a case or contention that gives your reaction to one of the prompts. 3. You should show that your case is upheld by the content. 4. You have to show that your perspective on this thought is right. 5. You have to outline that this thought comes to past the pages of The Crucible. These five objectives speak to the five components of your paper. The initial two data on the creator, play and your proposal are talked about in your presentation. The following two a conversation of how your models bolster your proposal and proof from the content are analyzed in your body passages. The last one a blend and more extensive ramifications of your investigation is introduced in your decision. Making a Thesis Statement and Writing an Introduction The Thesis Statement The proposition proclamation is the magic that binds your paper. When you have picked a theme, answer the accompanying inquiries: 1 . What is my case or contention? This case could be an assessment, a circumstances and logical results explanation, or a translation. This case must be an explanation that individuals could either concur or differ with, in light of the fact that the objective of your paper is to persuade your crowd that your case is genuine dependent on your introduction of reasons and proof. It ought not be a basic articulation of the realities. . ) What are the models that help my case? You should have three particular guides to help your case. Model: Topic: character imperfections Claim: characters who couldn't manage their blemishes turned out to be either culprits or ictims of bad form Examples: Mary Warren, Judge Danforth and John Proctor Thesis #1: In The Crucible, characters who couldn't m anage their defects turned out to be either casualties or culprits of unfairness. This is best represented by Mary Warren, Judge Danforth and John Proctor, who all show some sort of shortcoming. Proposal #2: In Arthur Millers play, The Crucible, Mary Warren, Judge Danforth and John Proctor became casualties or culprits ot bad form since they couldn't bargain witn character defects. You ought to pick a theme and compose a working proposal articulation today around evening time. Themes and hesis proclamations will be gathered Thursday, November 4 for endorsement. The Introduction Your presentation should move from general data to quite certain data. You ought to envision acquainting the peruser with: 1 . ) the title and creator 2. ) some data about the content 3. ) your subject 4. ) your proposal and three models. Make certain to include: 1 . A solid opening articulation General 2. A foundation of the creator and novel 3. A foundation of your subject More Specific 4. Your theory explanation and three models 5. A change into the body passages Very Specific Move through this arrangement of data in a specific order. This will give your presentation the suitable set-up and stream. Model: Arthur Millers play, The Crucible, is awesome case of how widespread panic can spread all through a little network. The setting of the play is Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 during the notorious Witch Trials. Mill operator utilizes these preliminaries and the manner in which they affected the Salem people group as a corresponding to the Red Scare of the 1950s. Both timespans show the impact degenerate specialists can have on the lives of others. The creators most striking discourse is on the job people play in acts f foul play. The greater part of these demonstrations appear to be an aftereffect of some type of character blemish or shortcoming. In The Crucible, characters who couldn't manage their imperfections became Judge Danforth and John Proctor who all show some sort of shortcoming. These characters were all at the focal point of plays significant clash. You should present your total presentation, Friday, November 5. In the event that you are late presenting this task, you will lose a chance to get significant criticism just as full credit. Body Paragraphs Once you have composed a presentation that establishes the pace for your paper and gives clear proposal just as your three supporting models or subtleties, your next undertaking is assembling your body sections. Each body section should comprise of three sections: 1 . a presentation of the model being examined 2. support for this model as a statement 3. n clarification of how this model help your postulation. Each section should comprise of 6-10 sentences that give the accompanying: 1 . A subject sentence that presents your model/supporting point of interest 2. A clarification of the model that associates it to your proposition explanation 3. Literary help for your model as a statement with an appropriate lead-in 4. A clarification of how this statement associates with your proposa l proclamation 5. A closing sentence that permits you to change into the following passage Stick to demonstrating your theory and abstain from summing up or retelling the plot. This isn't a book survey. Postulation Statement: In The Crucible, characters who couldn't manage their defects turned out to be either casualties or culprits of bad form. This is best outlined by Mary Warren, Judge Danforth and John Proctor, who all display some kind of shortcoming. Mary Warrens imperfections lead to the detainment of John and Elizabeth Proctor just as Johns execution. Right off the bat in the play, she is depicted as a compliant, innocent, desolate young lady (1043). These qualities permit her to become Abigails pawn. Plainly Mary is unconscious of Abigails plans to blame Elizabeth for witchery utilizing a doll Mary made in the court. She debilitates when Elizabeth is captured dependent on this proof despite the fact that she realizes the doll couldn't have been utilized for black magic. At the point when John Proctor takes her to the court to spare his better half, she keeps up her loyalty to Abigail nd young ladies. During exceptional addressing in the court, Mary shouts, mioure the fallen angels . Sick not hang with you! He come to me around evening time and consistently to man! sign (1102). At the point when the circumstance turns out to be unreasonably outrageous for Mary, she deserts any thought of coming clean and erroneously blames John Proctor for witchery. She permits herself to be utilized by different young ladies and is too hesitant to even consider presenting reality to the court. Mary Warren surrenders to her feelings of dread and neglects to spare the guiltless individuals she could have secured because of her powerless character. This defect adds to the demonstrations of njustice against John Proctor, who is detained, tormented and in the end hanged. The Crucible Essay Gathering Support Assignment You should use in any event one statement for every body section in your article. Recall that each statement should legitimately bolster your model and postulation. As it were, it ought to outline that point you are attempting to make. Utilize this sheet to assemble support for your article. Postulation Statement: Example One (First Supporting Detail): Quote: (page number): ( How does this associate with your proposition? Model Two (Second Supporting Detail): Example Three (Third Supporting Detail): Writing the First Draft The principal draft of your article is expected in class Wednesday, November 17 for peer altering. As you set up your first draft, utilize the accompanying updates/rules: Introduction - It should establish the pace for the whole article and start with a solid opening proclamation that is associated with your theme. It should begin with general data about the play, creator and your subject. It ought to give a reasonable proposal explanation that presents a contention or guarantee dependent on a translation of the play. It ought to give the three models being talked about. Body Each body section must talk about one model from the content that bolsters your theory explanation. Each body passage must incorporate a statement from the content to help your model. Recollect that each statement must be sandwiched between a lead-in and a development. Put the page number you got each statement from in bracket toward the finish of the sentence containing the statement. Incorporating Quotes Using MLA Style Short Quotations To show short citations (less than four composed lines of exposition or three lines of stanza) in your content, encase the citation inside twofold quotes. Accentuation arks, for example, periods, commas, and semicolons ought to show up after the incidental reference. Question marks and shout focuses ought to show up inside the quotes in the event that they are a piece of the cited entry however after the incidental reference on the off chance that they are a piece of your content. For instance: Early in the play, she is depicted as a compliant, guileless, forlorn young lady (1043). During the serious scene, Mary

Friday, August 21, 2020

Popular Religion And Popular Culture Religion Essay

Mainstream Religion And Popular Culture Religion Essay Famous religion and mainstream society in the late twentieth and mid twenty-first hundreds of years can likewise be comprehended by the manner by which people and gatherings having a place with the standard religion draw in their confidence. Articulations of well known religion can frequently be at significant fluctuation based on what is formally expected to be esteemed as hallowed. In this regard, well known religion ingests numerous traits of human experience that may be looked down on by purveyors of conventional religion. Among different parts of American life, contemporary well known religion can be best recognized in respects of Hollywood movies, popular music, mainstream writing, comic books, and the Internet. The development of Hollywood movies including strict topics has been established generally in the scriptural epic. As a well known class during the 1950s and 1960s, key instances of these epic strict movies incorporate The Robe (1953), The Ten Commandments (1956), Ben-Hur (1959), King of Kings(1961), and The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) among others. These movies ordinarily had enormous realistic scale, huge creation spending plans and film industry big names, for example, Richard Burton, Jean Simmons, Max Von Sydow, Charlton Heston, Deborah Kerr, and Yul Brynner. In the late 1960s and mid 1970s, there were various thrillers with strict topics, most eminently Rosemarys Baby (1968), The Exorcist (1973), and The Omen (1976). In Rosemarys Baby, a youthful, blameless Manhattan housewife is beguiled by a coven of witches into bringing forth the eponymous kid who is really the child of Satan. The Exorcist was a blood and gore movie that managed a little youngsters evil belonging and her affluent moms edgy endeavors to safeguard her girl through an expulsion by two Catholic ministers. Filling in as the zenith of the devil kid films of the period, The Omen is the tale of a well off negotiators family unwittingly embracing a youngster who is really the Antichrist predicted in the Book of Revelation. Speaking to an intriguing mix of story components from both Rosemarys Baby and The Exorcist, The Omen brought forth a few spin-offs just as a change. There are an incredible assortment of Jesus motion pictures that have advanced toward the cinema. In 1961, MGMs arrival of King of Kings (a revamp of Cecil B. DeMilles 1927 film of a similar title) was the primary endeavor by a significant film studio to create a strict epic in which the Christ Event was its fundamental core interest. That film was followed years after the fact other true to life interpretations of Jesus, for example, The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), the melodic Jesus Christ Superstar (1973), The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), The Passion of the Christ (2004), and most as of late The Color of the Cross (2006). By outline, Martin Scorseses The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) depicts the most recent long periods of Jesus Christ as he is enticed by Satan by looks at what life may have been similar to had Jesus not been executed including wedding and having intercourse with Mary Magdalene. In light of Nikos Kazantzakis 1960 novel of a similar name, the motion pic tures central matter is that Jesus, while liberated from human sin, may have still been powerless against all habits of allurement that people face, including question, frightful hesitance, scurrilous longing, and lament. By standing up to and at last vanquishing all of humanitys shortcomings, Jesus attempted to do Gods will while never giving up to natural enticements. At the movies end, Christ at last rejects all enticements and the film finishes up with the execution. As can be envisioned, this film produced an extensive arrangement of debate because of its topic. The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a movie co-composed, co-created and coordinated by Mel Gibson. As indicated by Gibson, the movies essential source material is gotten from the Christs enthusiasm accounts found in the four brief Gospels regardless of taking inventive freedoms of consolidating statements and pictures from both the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. While purposely reflecting customary portrayals of the Passion in visual craftsmanship, the film describes delineation of the most recent 12 hours in the life of Jesus of Nazareth, especially the capture, preliminary, torment, and execution of Jesus. Despite analysis with respect to the outrageous viciousness, verifiable incorrectness, and saw hostile to Semitic references, the mind-boggling achievement of the studios promoting effort among Catholics and fervent Christians helped the film set various film industry records all the while. Having earned generally $400 million, The Passion of the Christ holds the record for the most pre-discharge ticket deals and the most elevated netting R-evaluated film in U.S. history just as the most elevated netting strict film around the world. Moreover, in light of the fact that the movies discourse is totally spoken in Aramaic, Latin, and Hebrew with English captions, The Passion of the Christ is likewise the most elevated netting non-English language film to date. While numerous strict movies since the 1950s were normally founded on Christian stories, different movies have been situated in different strict customs. For example, The Message (Mohammed: The Messenger of God) (1976) in light of Islamic history and blended incredible discussion upon its discharge. The film delineates the notable second when the prophet Mohammed gets the Word from Allah during the seventh century A.D. in the Middle East despite everything commanded by polytheism. After this critical occasion, Mohammed starts sending his detachments to broadcast the fundamental lessons and principles of Islam all through the Middle East. The movies creation was muddled by the way that, as indicated by the lessons of the Quran, neither any similarities can be appeared of the prophet Mohammed and his more distant family nor the picture and voice of God ever be portrayed in any medium. To conquer this test, the lead job of Mohammed was as a missing hero while the character of Mohammeds uncle filled in as a swap for Mohammed who then again articulated lines and tuned in off-screen to a voice the crowd never heard to keep away from the sin of delineating pictures of either Allah or Mohammed. Movie producers Joel Coen and Ethan Coen have grappled with issues of Jewish film portrayals. Two of the Coen siblings films, Barton Fink (1991) and The Big Lebowski (1998), are particularly essential for their various plenitude of plainly yet unique Jewish characters. The Coens siblings have been blamed for portraying hostile to Jewish ethnic generalizations in their various movies, for example, Bernie the Shmatte, a timidly tricky hawker, in their third element film, Millers Crossing (1990). Be that as it may, their film A Serious Man (2009) is a strikingly provocative and strong depiction of Jewish American experience during the 1960s winnowed from their cherished recollections of experiencing childhood in St. Louis Park, a rural Jewish people group south of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Drawing intensely from the social custom of Ashkenazic Judaism, the film fixates at work like proficient and private predicaments of Larry Gopnik, a material science teacher experiencing an emergency of confidence. Battling to understand his destroyed life, Gopnik frantically looking for supernatural counsel and profound direction from three rabbis to turn into an individual of substance. At last the film ponders religious issues relating to the human enduring in manners that endeavor to accommodate the profound and the preposterous. Famous Religion and Popular Music The development of famous music is one of Americas most prominent social accomplishments and since the mid-twentieth century has had a few enlivened experts whose lives and chronicles in the music business that empowered the American culture by characterizing another standpoint where the sacrosanct and the common coincided inside the standard. For instance, Aretha Franklin was conceived in Memphis, Tennessee as one of five youngsters having a place with Rev. C. L. Franklin, a renowned Baptist priest, and Barbara Siggers Franklin, a vocalist and musician. Franklins guardians had an upset relationship and isolated for the last time when Aretha was six, leaving her and her kin to be raised by their fatherly grandma, Rachel Franklin. During her youth, the house was consistently visited by numerous individuals of her dads acclaimed companions including Clara Ward, Sam Cooke, and Mahalia Jackson. Within the sight of such gospel music legends, Franklins abilities both as a self-trained pian o wonder and a talented artist with an exceptional vocal range got clear when she entered her youngsters. As noted in her self-portrayal, Franklin expressed that her initial gospel singing was designed after Albertina Walker. Albeit early parenthood about wrecked Franklins gospel vocation, when she chose to come back to singing expertly as a pop artist as opposed to a gospel craftsman. At the point when she marked an agreement with Atlantic Records and started working with incredible RB maker Jerry Wexler to fuse a more gospel component into Franklins developing melodic sound. Before the finish of the 1960s, Franklins assignment as the reining Queen of Soul was obviously settled. Albeit a large portion of her collections were smash hits during this period, the arrival of Amazing Grace (1972) in the end sold more than 2,000,000 duplicates in the United States and has been hailed as the top of the line gospel collection ever. Denoting a triumphant come back to her gospel roots, the me lodies on Amazing Grace were recorded live at New Temple Missionary Baptist Church in Los Angeles, California nearby her dad just as gospel legend and family companion Rev. James Cleveland with sponsorship vocals by the Southern California Community Choir in January 1972. In the late 1970s, Bob Dylan turned into a conceived again Christian and discharged two collections of Christian gospel music: Slow Train Coming (1979) and Saved (1980). When taking a shot at Slow Train Coming with Jerry Wexler, the veteran RB maker, Dylan had begun to proselytize him during the account. Wexler answered: Bob, youre managing a sixty-two-year old Jewish nonbeliever. Lets simply make a collection

Thursday, July 30, 2020

How to Ask Stupid Questions (Without Sounding Stupid)

How to Ask Stupid Questions (Without Sounding Stupid) Imagine this situation: You are in a meeting with your company’s top executives and the CEO is presenting the company’s strategic plan for the next financial year.As he winds up his presentation, he talks about how “the top management will touch base offline and come up with strategic action plans that we can run up the flag pole in order to reach some low hanging fruit and improve our ROI”.This stops you in your tracks.What did he mean by that?You want to raise your hand and ask what he meant but you first look around the room and see your colleagues nodding their heads in agreement.It appears to you that the others have perfectly understood everything that was said.Even though you have no clue as to what has been said, you avoid asking the question because you do not want to sound stupid.After the meeting, while having lunch with another colleague who was in the same meeting, she discloses that she has no clue what was said, but she chose to stay quiet because she didn’t want to be sound stupid.No one likes to ask a question and come across as a stupid person. Doing so can cause embarrassment and make you look incompetent.However, in your professional life, you will inevitably come across situations that require you to ask questions and risk sounding dumb.This could be anything from asking for clarification in a meeting to asking your colleague to teach you something that you are expected to know or something that comes easily to others.The weight of not knowing something becomes heavier as you go higher up the corporate ladder, because the higher you are, the more people expect you to be knowledgeable.However, some situations will require you to ask such questions and therefore you will need to master the art of asking seemingly stupid questions without sounding stupid.WHY IT IS ACTUALLY SMART TO ASK STUPID QUESTIONS There is an old saying that “there are no stupid questions”.However, many of us still refrain from asking questions because we do not want to be seen as stupid.While it might seem counterintuitive, asking stupid questions is actually a smart thing to do.Below are some reasons why.Asking Stupid Questions Helps You Acquire New KnowledgeWhen you ask a stupid question, you might sound stupid for a few minutes, but you will learn something.On the other hand, if you refrain from asking the question, others might not realize your ignorance, but you will continue being ignorant.So, it is up to you to choose betweenlooking dumb for a few minutes and being ignorant for the rest of your life.For instance, let us assume you do not know how to use the office coffee machine. If you ask a colleague how to use it, they might think that you are dumb, but they will teach you how to use it.On the other hand, if you choose not to ask, no one will be aware that you do not know how to use it.However, you will always have to wait for someone else to make the coffee since you cannot make it on your own.Therefore, if you find yoursel f in a situation where you need to ask a stupid question, you should treat it as a learning opportunity.Only by learning can you become smarter.Remember, this might be your only chance to learn that thing.For instance, if you are in a networking event and you find yourself talking to an expert in a certain field, it is better to ask the questions you have in your mind about the subject, even if they seem might seem dumb to them.The person might think you are dumb, but you will gain some knowledge about the subject.On the other hand, if you keep your questions to yourself, you might not get any other opportunity of learning from the person.Asking Questions Shows You Are Actually Paying AttentionIf meetings form a huge part of your weekly schedule, you will have noticed one annoying trait in meetings â€" people who pay zero attention to the proceedings of the meeting.They will either be sneaking peeks at their phones every two minutes, answering emails on their computer or just starin g off into space, lost in their thoughts.This is very rude and disrespectful to the presenter.It shows that their ideas and contribution is worthless.People love being listened to and seeing that their contributions matter. One way to show them that you are actually paying attention is by asking questions.When someone explains something that you do not understand, ask them questions for clarification. Even if your questions might come off as stupid, you are far off better than the colleague who pretends to have understood everything yet they weren’t even paying attention.It shows the presenter that you are actually listening to what they have to say and are eager to know more.Asking Questions Is an Indicator ofan Inquisitive MindSmart people ask questions, even if they risk appearing dumb. A question might appear stupid on the surface, but it can uncover a new way of thinking or lead to better solutions to a problem.Asking questions shows you are an inquisitive person who is open to new ways of looking at things and is not afraid of trying unconventional approaches.Asking questions even in situations where you are expected to be knowledgeable also shows that you are more committed to the outcome than to how others view you.Remember, it is easier to ask a stupid question than to correct a stupid mistake.Asking Stupid Questions Helps Reveal Hidden Ambiguity and Erroneous AssumptionsStupid questions can help you learn a lot. They help uncover any prejudices and assumptions that people might have when discussing a particular topic. They help reveal the complexity of things that initially seem to be obvious.For instance, let’s assume your organization wants to make its operations digital and you are in a meeting to discuss whether you should build a website or a mobile app for the organization.The debate is heated as your colleagues discuss the advantages and disadvantages of one against the other.In the midst of the debate, one colleague raises their hand and asks this:“Why are we going digital anyway?”Initially, this might seem like a pretty stupid question. The assumption is that in today’s world, every business needs to go digital.However, answering that question helps uncover the real objectives the organization wants to achieve by making its operations digital.This makes it easier to choose between a website and a mobile app, based on what the organization wants to achieve.Asking Stupid Questions Ensures Everyone Is on the Same PageThis is related to the previous point.Sometimes, a person with great knowledge on a subject might assume that everyone has a clear understanding of the basics of the subject.Such a person might discuss the topic from their own perspective, leaving others in the dark.Asking a seemingly dumb questions shows the person that everyone does not have the same understanding of the subject as them.While the question might sound dumb to them, it will help place this person on the same page as the people he is addressing.For instance, if you are talking to a web consultant about how to improve your online sales, he might casually mention that your website needs some SEO (a common term in the online and web industry). To them, this is a daily term that everyone should be aware of.So, asking what SEO is might sound dumb.However, it helps remind them that you are not an expert in their industry, and therefore makes it easier for them to explain everything to you clearly.While it is clear that asking stupid questions can actually be smart, the secret lies in knowing how to ask these questions.Without the proper strategy, asking these questions will make you sound stupid and leave others silently questioning your competence.So, how do you ask stupid questions without sounding stupid?THE PROPER WAY TO ASK STUPID QUESTIONSObserve FirstIt makes no sense asking a stupid question if it something you can learn through observation. This is especially relevant to things that are done almost every day and that everyone is naturally expected to know.Instead of actually showing that you do not know how to do it, chat up a colleague as they perform the task while you subtly watch what they are doing.You can then try to replicate what they did on your own.While not all your questions will be based on simple things that you can easily learn through observation, it is always good to try and learn something by yourself before you decide to ask.Practical Example: If you do not know how to use the office coffee machine, asking a fellow colleague might make you look dumb. If you want to avoid coming across as a dumb person, you can walk up to a colleague and chat them up as they brew their coffee. As you chat, subtly observe what they are doing and then return to the coffee machine later to try it yourself.Think Before You AskSome questions are not inherently stupid. What makes them stupid is that they show that you did not give them any thought before you asked the question, and this nat urally makes you sound stupid.Do not simply blurt out a question the moment it pops into your head.Instead, give it some thought and consider whether it is worth asking, and whether it will help you (or others) gain some extra knowledge.Follow the Google RuleDo not ask a stupid question if you think can find the answer on Google.For instance, if your CEO is talking about the new ERP system the company wants to implement, do not raise your hand and ask what ERP means.Instead, if you can discreetly type the term on Google to understand what they are talking about.Even if you are talking to them face to face and you do not have the opportunity to Google the term, make a mental note of the term and Google it up once you get back to your desk.If you find information on Google that you do not understand, you can then ask more specific questions from a more knowledgeable point of view.The key thing here is to avoid asking questions that could be answered with “make Google your friend”. Practical example: Instead of asking your boss how to incorporate Excel graphs into your PowerPoint presentation, you can easily learn how to do that on the internet.Ask Dumb Questions EarlyWhen you start a new job or move into a new industry, it is expected that you might not know a lot about the new job or industry.Therefore, you stupid questions will be more tolerated and people will be more willing to help you out.However, they expect you to learn the longer you stay there, so if you ask some seemingly stupid questions a year after joining the company, they are more likely to view you as a dumb and incompetent person.You should ask your dumb questions early and often to help you learn things faster.Start With What You KnowThe fastest way to look totally stupid is to have absolutely no clue about whatever you are asking.Therefore, if you do not want to sound stupid, do your own research into the topic before asking the question. You might even find the answers you are looking for .Even if you are unable to find the answer, you will have a better understanding of the subject, which will allow you to ask questions from a more knowledgeable point of view.When asking your question, you should then start by mentioning what you know about the topic, and then ask for clarification on what you do not understand.This shows the other person that you actually put in some effort into the subject and makes them more willing to help you out.A good way to show what you do know is to preface your question with statements such as “I’ve read that…” or “When preparing for our meeting, I noted that…” before moving on to the question.Practical example: If you are a marketer who just moved from the automobile industry to the tech industry, you won’t be well versed with everything about marketing in the tech industry. When asking a question that might sound obvious to those who have been in the tech industry, do not say “I have no clue how to handle this situatio n. Could you please show me?” Instead, show what you know by saying, “I have previously worked in the automobile industry, and this is the approach we used for such scenarios. However, I understand things are a little bit different in the tech industry, so could you enlighten me on the best approach for this scenario from a tech industry perspective?”Make a Solid SuggestionSometimes, your questions make you look stupid because they show that you have absolutely no clue about what you are asking.They show that you have not given the slightest thought to whatever you are asking.To avoid sounding clueless, you need to give a solid suggestion to show that you have actually thought about you are asking and that you only need some little guidance.It also makes it easier for the other person to answer your question.Even if your suggestion is not the best, it shows some effort on your part.Practical example: Let’s say your company has just created a digital marketing department, and you have been tasked with conceptualizing and implementing the first digital marketing campaign. This is the first time you are handling digital marketing, and you will definitely have some questions. Do not go to the marketing manager and ask “Where should I start?” Instead, do some research and find out what digital marketing entails. Once you are armed with some knowledge, you can say something like, “I think we should start by creating social media pages for the business and hiring an agency to develop a website for us. Do you agree or is there a better starting point?” This asks the same question â€" “where should I start?” â€" but in a better way that makes you look competent instead of sounding dumb.Don’t Concede Your DumbnessOne of the major mistakes people make when asking a stupid question is to acknowledge that they are asking a stupid question, which makes them sound even more stupid.Do not start your question with a statement like, “I know this is a stu pid question, but…”Do not apologize for asking the question by prefacing the question with a statement like, “I’m sorry, but I wanted to ask…”Doing any of these portrays you as an incompetent person and sets you up for a dismissive answer from the very start. Even when asking a stupid question, ask it with confidence.Ask the question in a straightforward way, without being apologetic. Look the person in the eye and ask your question without fumbling or wavering.Practical example: Let’s say you need to pull a client report from the newly implemented CRM, but you cannot recall how to go about it. You need to ask a colleague (or your boss) to remind you how to do it. Do not go to them and say, “Excuse me George, I know it’s silly of me to have forgotten, but can you remind me how to pull a client report from the new CRM?” Instead, walk confidently to their desk and say, “Hi George, could you kindly remind me the process of pulling a client report from the new CRM? ”Seek Clarification through DetailsSometimes, we ask stupid questions because we have not clearly understood something.If someone has just explained something but you did not clearly understand them, do not concede that you did not understand a thing they said.This will only make you sound stupid. Instead, you can ask for details that would clarify their explanation without showing that you did not understand the explanation.A good way of doing this is to ask them to give you a real-life example of whatever they just explained.Another good alternative of seeking clarification through details is asking open ended questions that encourage longer answers.For instance, you can as questions like “What factors do you think drive XYZ?” or “What do you think about XYZ?”Seek Out Supporting OpinionsLike I mentioned above, sometimes our stupid questions arise from the fact that we did not understand someone’s explanation of something.While we might not have understood their explana tion, perhaps someone else might have a better explanation that we will find easier to understand.You can encourage such a person to voice their explanation by asking questions such as, “Has someone else here ever encountered such a problem before? How did you deal with it?”This makes it easier for you to encourage someone else to explain the concept to you without acknowledging that you did not understand the first explanation.Ask For Feedback from Subject ExpertsSometimes, you might be in a meeting and someone raises a point that you do understand clearly.Acknowledging that you have no understanding of the point being discussed might make you look dumb, especially when everyone else in the room seems (or pretends) to understand it clearly.At the same time, choosing to downplay your ignorance is a risky affair as well. It might backfire on you in case you are asked to give your opinion on the issue.So, how do you get yourself from this catch-22 without displaying your ignorance ?A good way of doing this is by asking for feedback from people who have in-depth knowledge on the matter.For instance, you could say, “That sounds like a great idea, but I would like to hear the COO’s opinion on the matter before we proceed. She is quite knowledgeable in this area and might provide some great insights we might have overlooked.”By doing this, you are asking the subject matter expert to explain the concept without actually acknowledging that you do not have a clear understanding of the matter.Ask Specific Questions Instead of Broad QuestionsBroad questions show that you do not have a clue about what you are asking about, which makes you appear dumb.For instance, if you are holding discussions with the agency you hired to build your new website, saying “I saw that PHP is better in terms of XYZ, but what makes it the best choice for our project in particular?” is a lot better than saying “What is PHP?”However, for you to be able to ask more specific quest ions, you need to have done your own research beforehand to give you a better understanding of the subject.Ask Them to Explain To a ChildIf someone has presented something but you did not understand it, you can hide your ignorance but still ask for clarification by asking the presenter to explain the concept to an imaginary person.Asking them to explain it to a child is a good option.This is because explaining something to a child requires them to explain it in the simplest possible language.You could do this by saying, “To make sure that everyone clearly understands this, can you pretend you are explaining it to an eight year old?”Remain Quiet If You Can Afford ToWhile I started by saying that asking stupid questions can actually be a smart thing to do, there are situations in which it is a lot better to remain quiet.If you feel with absolute certainty that asking a question will lead to others perceiving you in negative light, it is a lot better to research the question later or gain some insight into the subject before asking your question.Assess the situation before asking your question, and if you feel that the situation calls for it, it is better to remain silent and hide your ignorance instead of blurting out and becoming the laughing stock of the company.CONCLUSIONIn the course of your day to day life, you will inevitably find yourselves in situations that require you to ask stupid questions. In some instances, asking stupid questions is actually a smart thing.However, you need to have the right approach in order to ask stupid questions without sounding stupid.Before asking a stupid question, always take the time to think it through and observe. You should not ask questions if the answer can be found on Google.However, if it is an absolute must for you to ask, ask stupid questions early and start by showing what you know.Accompany them with solid suggestions and ask the questions confidently, without acknowledging your ignorance. You can hide your ignorance by seeking clarification through details, seeking out supporting opinions and asking for feedback from subject matter experts.However, always assess a situation before asking a stupid question, and if it is not an absolute must for you to ask the question, it is much better for you to remain silent.

Monday, June 29, 2020

Research On Islamic Banking In Uae Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

With the start of century new development in the economic front happened and the most important was Islamic bank. Financial institution around the world saw new things emerging from Islamic bank such as Islamic socioeconomic, benefits and believes to stop interest rates and unethical activities of financial institution. Islamic bank provide new methods and new form of investment for development of economy. Islamic bank has given world and financial institution new air to breath. Islamic banking has made some important political, social, and economical changes around the world. Islamic banking Islamic bank has develop new definition for itself and it is define as a financial entity which can maximize the wealth of its share holders with benefits for the society based on Islamic principle or Islamic Shariah. (Islamic banking, 2010) Islamic banking is the banking system in which banking is done according to Islamic laws and to guide economic in Islamic terms. It is important to note that Islam prohibit and stops the use of usury and interest (riba) in any kind. Islamic banking also prohibits and stops involvement of banks in business related to gambling, pornography, alcohol and pork etc. Islamic banking has developed in late 20th century and it has created and catered the needs of Islamic consumer around the world according to developed technology of 20th century. (Islamic banking, 2010) Principles of Islamic Banking There are main pillars in Islamic financial systems which are important for Islamic banking workability. Principle of Islamic banking includes laws and rules and they are called Shariah which governs many parts of society such as culture, economy and society as a whole. (Islamic banking, 2010) Shariah started from the rules of Quran and its practices which then explain by Sunnah and by Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). Further explanation of the Shariah is done by Islamic jurisprudent, and this interpretation is important for correct Islamic banking. (Islamic banking, 2010) There are different principles of Islamic banking which I will cover and explain. Interest: Interest is considers bad thing in Islam because it is beyond the pale in increase of capital/money in many forms loans or deposits. More importantly we can say any increase in varies banking such as fix banking, to increase the profit is considered to be prohibited because it generates unhealthy profits. Int erest (riba) is prohibited in Islamic banking but also charging is also prohibited in Islam because it creates debate on equality and rights (Warde, 2000). Islam is a peaceful religion and it encourage earning of profits but it discourage the interest in Islamic banking. Social system must have balance and lender and borrower should share the profit or lose and Islamic banking provides such socially acceptable phenomena. Risk partaking: Risk partaking is not allowed in Islamic banking because supplier becomes unjustified-ably the benefited rather than the creditor. Islamic bank provide financial capital and its profit and loses must be shared to decrease risk partaking in general practice of financial activities. Capital: Capital is also known as potential money and it makes actual capital join with other resources to make productive activity. Islamic banking recognize the value of money and but it prefers capital not the potential capital. Speculative behaviour: Speculativ e behaviour is considered bad in Islamic banking because it involves extreme level of uncertainty and risk for capital investment and utilization (Islamic banking, 2010). Example includes gambling and anything related to gambling. Purity of contracts: Islam is the religion which inhabits purity in it and it implement this purity in contracts because contracts should disclose all the necessary information to be known. Purity of contracts reduce asymmetric and hazard risk (Islamic banking, 2010). Shariah activities: Islam involves only things which are based upon shariah and doesnt violate sharish in any form. Example of approved shariah activities includes any investment in dealing with gambling, pork and pornography is illegal (Islamic banking, 2010). Banking Risk and Islamic banking Understanding the banking risk is very important Islamic banking because in determines a competitive and volatile market environment for complex banking business process. A bank should be aware of risk when it is operating or taking any process into consideration. Below are the risk and factors an Islamic bank should consider in general banking environment. Figure 1: Banking risk exposures Financial risks Operations risks Business risks Event risks Balance sheet structure Internal fraud Macro policy Political Income statement structure and profitability External fraud Financial infrastructure Contagion Capital adequacy Employment practices and workplace safety Legal infrastructure Banking crisis Credit Clients, products, and business services Legal liability Other exogenous Liquidity Damage to physical assets Regulatory Market Business disruption and system failures (technology risk) Reputation and fiduciary Interest rate Execution, delivery, and process management Country risk Currency Source: Archer Karim, (2007). In Islamic Finance: The Regulatory Challenge (p. 14). Singapore: John Wiley Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd. Finance product and instruments in Islamic Bank There are many type of financial instrument the Islamic banks use and these are sometimes simple and sometimes complicated due to various banking aspect. Debt instruments: Debt instruments include Murabaha (Murabaha is determination of resale price based upon cost and profit markup), Salam (Salam define the deferred delivery of goods and it is opposite of Murabaha), Istisna ( Istisna is financial lending for long term), and Qard al-Hasan ( Qard al-Hasan is interest free loan). (Iran International, 2006) Quasi-debt instruments: Quasi-debt instruments have Ijara which means leasing contract by group leases assets for specific rent and terms. The bank has to bear all the risk associated with ownership and assets can be negotiated based on market price and sale of Ijara contract. (Iran International, 2006) Profit loss sharing instruments: Profit and loss sharing instrument has Musharaka which is an entity under which bank and client jointly take a financial project. Ownership can be decided based on involvement of finance in the project. Profit and loss sharing is also agreed between two groups and there should be no violation of contract or misconduct in any terms. (Iran International, 2006) Islamic Bonds: Islamic bond include Sukuk which is basically a financial certificate and it is Islamic equivalent of bond. There are some types of financial certificate which are not allowed in Islamic finance such as fix income and interest baring bonds. (Islamic banking, 2010) Safe keeping: Safe keeping includes Wadiah in which bank is considered as trustee of fund. A person has account in the bank, bank assurance the amount of the account. (Islamic banking, 2010) Agency: Agency is defined as waqalah which undertakes persons all transactions on his behalf. (Islamic banking, 2010) Current practices in Islamic Banking Islamic banking are collective at the point of interest free banking and they have equal and distributed basic agreed principles to work on. Islamic bank can be different according to individuality and country laws, aims and objectives, experience and circumstances and interaction based upon free from interest rates. In the coming paragraph I will describe the common features implemented by Islamic banks around the world. (Gafoor, 1995) Deposit accounts Islamic banks have different kind of account which includes investment, current, and savings account. Current accounts A current account equal to conventional bank account and in it deposit is assurance. Savings accounts Saving account operate differently in Islamic banks. In few banks depositor is allowed to use money but they have to obtain assurance of getting full money to the bank. Banks allow several methods to attract customers but no profit is promised. In other few saving accounts an account is treated as investment account and has various strings attach to it. (Gafoor, 1995) Investment account Investment account are accounts in which amount is deposit for unlimited time upon the request of the investor share is done in profit between bank and investor. In investment account the capital is not assured. Modes of financing There are different modes of finance which are implemented by Islamic bank and called trade, lending and investment finance. Investment financing There are three main category of investment financing. They are: Musharaka: Musharaka in which bank joins another group to setup another joint venture, both groups participate in project in varying form. The profit and loss is determined before the start of the project. (Gafoor, 1995) The concept of musharaka is similar to join venture concept and venture is independent entity from which bank withdraw step by step. Mudarabha: Mudarabha is a form in which a Islamic bank provides finance and the person provides the expertise and management. (Gafoor, 1995) Profit and lose in this is also define before the start of project. But the important thing is that loses are usually taken by bank. Estimated rate of return: under this type of investment bank determine the estimate price of returns for specific project undertaken by bank. If the project is finished and profit is more than estimated amount then the profit goes to the client, and if the loses is in the profit then the bank will accept lower rate. Trade financing There are five main category of investment financing. They are: Mark-up: Mark-up is the type of trade financing in which banks buy items from client and client agrees to pay to the bank on agreed profit. Leasing: Leasing is type of trade financing in which bank buy item for client and client has to payback the amount in specific allowed time. Hire-purchase: Hire-purchase is the purchase in which the bank buys an item for client and hires him for agreed rent or cost for specific time until client becomes the owner. Sell and buy back: Sell and buy back is in which client sells property to the bank and buy back from the bank at a agreed price. Letters of credit: Letters of credit is where bank assurance for importing items for a client. Lending There are two main category of investment financing. They are: Service charge loans: service charge loan is the service charge where bank lends money without interest and bank covers expense by service charge. No-cost loans: No-cost loans are for people like farmers with small land, producers with small production and they are very needy person or clients. Services Islamic banks also provide services which are also important such as money transfer, trade in different currencies, and bill assortment where banks own money and not involves in commission. (Gafoor, 1995) Islamic Banking in UAE Islamic bank started in UAE according the law of 1985 number 6 of article 1, 2, 3, and these laws governs Islamic bank and financial institute in UAE. (Centralbank, 1985) These articles are made so they are compatible with UAE and Shariah laws. To work in UAE in Islamic banking it has to conduct its activities according to principle of Islamic Shariah. Islamic banks in UAE have the right to conduct commercial, investment and other financial related activities openly and clearly. Islamic banks also have the right to do lending and other financial operation and they can also move their assets and benefit from these assets according to its shariah law (Centralbank, 1985). UAE has number of Islamic banks and the number is increasing each year and so the development of the UAE. (Tahir, 2006)Dubai Islamic bank is the first bank which is free from interest and it also practice Islamic banking according to shariah and this bank is based on the idea of Muslim endorsement by OIC (Organ ization of the Islamic Conference). Strategies of Islamic banks in UAE In the UAE the strategic management considered that it is group of decisions and activities in the present to ensure the performance of institutes in the future, these decisions included forming specific aims that should be achieved upon dissimilar periods of time begins with short period of time passing with middle period of time, finishing with the distant period of time, the strategic management consists of three stages: 1- The strategic environmental analytical stage: and it depends on studying of the two environments the interior and the exterior to the institute in order to identified the strategic management and use it in the next step the organization environment contains four main materials the chances given, the risks, in the exterior environment, and the weak and the strength points in the interior environment. The strategic planning strategy contains making four followed activities, and does them to achieve the institutes aims and its strategic plans and its differen t policies. (Pealow, 2000) 2- The execution stage: it contains put plans and policies which have been developed in the last stage in effective application, during to the application programmes and balance sheet and different other procedures. (Pealow, 2000) 3- The watching strategic stage: this stage contains evaluate the institute performance to ensure that the strategic aims applied according to the plans and the correcting procedures to correct mistakes and effective watching for the application. But the human resource strategic is decision making process relates to the human resource system that make the human resource system with the environmental conditions and to support the institutes strategic and achieve it strategic aims to face the exchange that face the institute according the environmental conditions. (Pealow, 2000) There is difference between work force planning and the human resource strategy but the human resource, so the work force planning strategy foc us on application employments in human resources management because it is a part from the institute strategy and work with it to achieve the strategic aims, the human strategic human resources materials identify through to: Studying the environmental materials that surrounded the institute from all its side and the human resource system. Putting on the human resources aims with supporting the general aims of the institute and working on doing them. Apply the human resource private strategy that supports its general strategy. Apply the work plans and policies and the private time programmes of human resource that support the strategy. Management of Islamic Bank in UAE Now the differentiate between the local and international business demands on the banking environment the great generated development from the quick technical development that dominate on the business with two its forms productive and serving, in all organizations, and the actual of competition that depending on the employ career and modern technology, in the work sector adding development and improvement in the productions and services in all kinds and forms, that achieves the organizations aim to destroy the competitions obstacles, and apply its planes, due to the progressing improvement in the field of development and progress of the organizations strategies. And to achieve all of these things, it is necessary and duty of the managements find strategic professional management for human resources and it should be the productive and creative basic of the organization with specialist rule can be deal with the environmental changes, and to integrate its strategy with the organiza tion strategy that it deals with to use the chances and face changes and the ability to self built, that helps to achieve strategic aims for managements and organizations. The process of educated and trained human resource the most important cases that the banks and institutes related to, so on the developing nations take great importance combined with great desire to develop and improve the work performance for the workers and identify their productivity, in this research we will study the strategic management for human resource as group of modern systems that completed to achieve human resource system that aims to support the organization strategies to face changes with environmental cases that achieve its development and progressing. Challenges facing Islamic banking Islamic banking faces many challenges around the world. There are many challenges related to conventional banking, globalization, competition, price and quality, economy, growth, capital and long term investment. The Islamic banking has many weaknesses and strengthens which make them workable in hostile environment. (Challenges facing Islamic, 2005) Islamic bank should develop global banking industry and open their self for financial balance and attracting large number of clients for greater ability to attract the capital and providing best possible service. (Tahir, 2006)Islamic bank should also provide better rule and standards, good station, good technical system, good financial technology and innovation. Islamic bank should also regulate itself according to international Islamic financial market. (Challenges facing Islamic, 2005) There are many challenges related to commercial aspects affecting Islamic banking and Islamic institution. Below diagram illustrate the differenc es which are faced by Islamic bank in no-commercial and commercial pressure. Figure 2 No commercial pressure on Islamic Financial Institution Investment Account Holder Mudarib Ijarah Investment account holder does not have any alternative investment opportunities RETURNS Commercial pressure on Islamic Financial Institution Ijarah Investment Account Holder Mudarib Mudarib must forfeit returns and smooth income to make ijarah commercially viable Potion of mudaribs income forfeited to investment account holder RETURNS Source: Archer Karim, (2007). In Islamic Finance: The Regulatory Challenge (p. 99). Singapore: John Wiley Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd. The Islamic Bank in UAE and Market Discipline UAE as new creative and development country adapt all new changes that related to business so that it could continues and implement always the demands of world economy and created relations in a way for stronger marketing improvement. And since the banking investment it is one main way to achieve the successful in business environment, as a result the UAE government id support and help to have 8 Islamic banks that been entered to the market in all UAE with capital investment exceed trillions of dollars. So all these banks did already start their operations and did increase the preference in the huge economy of UAE. So, all banks in UAE do have plans to get more profits ASAP based on the visions and missions to become as one of the leading banks in the world (Archer Karim, 2007). Islamic banks in UAE considered as a multinational organizations network that spread all over the region. There are legends in innovation founded in UAE economy. They do provide products and a service i n different countries, recently employed thousands of people around the region, and sells and services real estate and other retails in many countries. Market discipline plays an important role in banking and if an Islamic bank has to develop; it has to follow the steps of information, ability, incentives and mechanism combining with market discipline which is shown diagram below. (Archer Karim, 2007) Figure 3: Developing market discipline in Islamic Banking Market participants must have the ability to process information correctly Market participants must have sufficient information to reach informed judgments Information Ability Incentive Mechanism Conditions for effective market disciple Market participants must have the right mechanism to exercise discipline Market participants must have the right incentive to act upon information Source: Crockett, former BIS General Islamic Banks Nature of innovation Nature of economy is changing developed world, more and more innovation is needed for continuous growth. (Tahir, 2006)The challenge face by today world is crisis which is faced by different organization and institutions. This crisis makes difficulty in lending, decline in non-financial organization cooperation for growth so we need innovative concept and technique which are in early Islamic banking such as Mufawada, and Mudarabah. (Iqbal, 2001) Below are the growth factors in variable terms and it effect on Islamic banking, these analysis give us the perspective where the Islamic bank are standing and where they should go in coming decade. IBs stands for Islamic Banks CG stands for control group which consist of conventional banks. Figure 4: Investment Investments Growth IBs Investments Growth CG 1990-94 11.3 % -0.8 % 1994-97 7.3 % 9.1 % 1990-97 9.6 % 3.3 % Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Deve lopments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank investment growth was 11.3% while control group has negative growth. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had a decrease growth 7.3 % while control group had increase growth of 9.1%. Figure 5: Assets Assets Growth IBs Assets Growth CG 1990-94 9.3 % 4.8 % 1994-97 6.8 % 6.6 % 1990-97 8.2 % 5.6 % Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank assets growth were 9.3% while control group has asset growth of 4.8%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had a decrease growth 6.8 % while control group had increase growth of 6.6%. Figure 6: Equity Equity Growth IBs Equity Growth CG 1990-94 7.9 % 6.4 % 1994-97 10.5 % 4.7 % 1990-97 9 % 5.6 % Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Fi nance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank equity growth were 7.9% while control group has asset growth of 6.4%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had increase growth 10.5 % while control group had decrease growth of 4.7%. Figure 6: Deposit Equity Growth IBs Equity Growth CG 1990-94 9.3 % 3.1 % 1994-97 6.1 % 7.2 % 1990-97 7.9 % 4.8 % Source: Dr. Munawar Iqbal (2001). In Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice (p. 382). United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation. In 1990-94 Islamic bank deposits growth were 9.3% while control group has deposit growth of 3.1%. In 1994-97 Islamic bank had decrease growth 6.1 % while control group had increase growth of 7.2%. Conclusion Islamic banking is a very young concept compare to traditional banking, still it is implemented in Islamic countries but Islamic countries there is also traditional banking which is the threat to Islamic banking. Despite the success of Islamic banking there are few problems in Islamic banking which are related to area of finance. (Gafoor, 1995) To get rid of problems Islamic banking, Islamic bank should get rid of unwieldy, troublesome and uncertain financing activities, and have efficient and effective interest free banking. In Islamic banking it has all needed and basic required element for successful banking but they need little modification, such modified example is mudaraba financial service. Islamic bank also should operate in non-Muslim countries and they should give positive alternative to conventional banking for non Muslim people. (Gafoor, 1995) Finance is unique feature of Islamic banking and it should be relevant to shariah and Islamic principle, but it must not f orget to have a country which can develop itself on Islamic banking.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Effective Praise Highlights Student Effort

Praise works. In fact, educational research since the 1960s shows that students at every grade level and in every subject like to be praised for their work in the classroom. The empirical evidence from the research shows that praise can have a positive impact on both student academic learning and social behavior. Yet, as researchers Robert A. Gable, et al. note in their article Back to Basics Rules, Praise, Ignoring, and Reprimands Revisited (2009)  in the Journal of Intervention in School and Clinic, Given the documented positive effects of teacher praise, it is puzzling why so many teachers make little use of it. In determining why praise in the classroom is not used more often, Gable et al. suggest that teachers may not have had the training through peer coaching, self-monitoring, or self -evaluating and may not feel comfortable in acknowledging positive pupil behavior consistently.   Another reason may be that teachers may not know how to deliver praise that is effective. Teachers may give general praise using phrases such as, â€Å"Great work!† or â€Å"Nice job, students!† General phrases are not the most effective way for teachers to give feedback in the classroom. General phrases are directed to no one or to no skill in particular. Moreover, while these general phrases may be nice to hear, they may be too broad, and their overuse may result in becoming humdrum.  Similarly routine responses such as â€Å"Awesome!† or â€Å"Excellent!† by themselves do not inform the student what specific behaviors brought about success. Arguments against generic praise given indiscriminately have been made by education researcher Carol Dweck (2007) in her article The Perils and Promises of Praise in Educational Leadership. The wrong kind of praise creates self-defeating behavior. The right kind motivates students to learn. So, what can make praise the â€Å"right kind†? What can make praise in the classroom effective? The answer is the timing or when the teacher gives praise. The other important criteria of praise are the quality or kind of praise. When to Give Praise When a teacher uses praise to acknowledge student effort in problem-solving or in practice, make the praise more effective. Effective praise can be directed to an individual student or group of students when the teacher wants to connect praise with a particular behavior. That also means that praise should not be given for trivial accomplishments or weak efforts by students such as minor task completion or the student completing their responsibilities. In making praise effective, a teacher should explicitly note the behavior as the reason for praise in as timely a manner as possible.  The younger the student, the more immediate the praise should be. At the high school level, most students can accept delayed praise. When a teacher sees a student is making progress, the language of encouragement as praise can be effective. For example, I can see your hard work in this assignment.You have not quit even with this tough problem.Keep using your strategies! You’re making good progress!You have really grown (in these areas).I can see a difference in your work compared to yesterday. When a teacher sees a student succeed, the language of congratulatory praise may be more appropriate, such as: Congratulations! You put in the effort to succeed.Look at what you can accomplish when you do not give up.I am so proud of the effort, and you should be too, about the effort you put into this. Should students succeed easily without effort, praise can address the level of the assignment or problem. For example: This  assignment was not as challenging for you, so lets try and find something that will help you grow.  You may be ready for something more difficult, so what skills should we work on next?  It’s great that you have that down.  Ã‚  We need to raise the bar for you now. After giving praise, teachers should encourage students to take advantage of this opportunity to offer a chance for reflection So when you have another assignment or problem like this, what will you do?  Think back, what did you do that contributed to your success? Quality of Praise Praise must always be connected to a process, rather than student intelligence. That is the basis of Dwecks research in her book Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (2007). She showed that students who received praise for their innate intelligence with statements such as â€Å"You are so smart† exhibited a â€Å"fixed mindset. They believed that academic achievement was limited on innate ability. In contrast, students who were praised for their efforts with statements such as â€Å"Your argument is very clear† exhibited a growth mindset and believed in academic achievement through effort and learning. Thus, we found that praise for intelligence tended to put students in a fixed mind-set (intelligence is fixed, and you have it), whereas praise for effort tended to put them in a growth mind-set (youre developing these skills because youre working hard). Of the two types of praise, Dweck notes, praise for student  effort such as â€Å"All that hard work and effort in completing the project paid off!† improves student motivation. One caution in praising, however, is to Make sure teachers are careful not to be inauthentic to inflate praise for students with low self-esteem. Critics have raised questions about the legitimacy of classroom praise, as rewarding trivial accomplishments or weak efforts. There may be some schools that do not support the use of evidence-based practices such as teacher praise. Additionally, at the secondary level, praise may also be received by students as drawing unwanted attention to an accomplishment. Regardless, there is no evidence to suggest that effective praise has a negative effect on students. Instead, effective praise can provide students with the kind of positive reinforcement that builds on success, motivates them to learn, and increases their participation in class. Steps to Effective Praise Notice effort by the student(s).Make eye contact with the student(s).Smile. Be sincere and enthusiastic.Deliver praise to students in proximity, especially at the secondary level.Prepare for praise by deciding what to say that is specific to the task.  Describe the behavior you want to reinforce telling how you feel about it with specific comments like, Your thoughts were well organized in this essay.Keep records of successful efforts and praise so you can make connections in future assignments. Finally, and most importantly, importantly, do not combine praise with criticism. To keep praise separate from criticism, avoid using the word, but immediately after a compliment. All this can make praise effective in the classroom. Effective praise can provide students with the kind of positive reinforcement that builds on success, motivates them to learn, and increases their participation in class.